Minimisation of Hazardous Waste Generated by Cleaning-in-Place Operations in the Dairy Processing Industry

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Resource or Project Abstract

In dairy processing, effective cleaning of process equipment is essential for efficient plant operation and for the production of safe, quality dairy products. Such cleaning is generally achieved using sodium hydroxide (NaOH), caustic formulated detergents and acid at temperatures of up to 70-80C. As such, cleaning has a negative impact on the environment. Cleaning has been reported to account for 30% of the energy use in dairy processing (Eide et al., 20031) and is the largest contributor to overall wastewater volume in many plants (Danalewich et al., 19982). Detergents represent the greatest proportion of chemicals used in dairy plants (Wildbrett, 20033) and some of the chemicals used have adverse effects on human and ecosystem health and on the environment (Fryer et al., 20064). Enzymes, which are biodegradable, have been exploited for cleaning in various other sectors, most notably in laundry and automatic dishwasher Contact was established with several dairy co-ops and companies supplying cleaning chemicals to the dairy industry in order to establish details of how CIP is currently undertaken. Eight commercial protease products were evaluated on a laboratory scale by quantitatively assessing their ability to remove a milk fouling deposit, representative of that occurring on heated components, from stainless steel. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that proteases, and in particular the three commercial products identified, are of potential use for CIP in dairy processing.

While the laboratory-scale studies undertaken are a useful indicator of potential suitability, pilot- and industrial-scale studies are necessary to fully determine actual industrial applicability and confirm economic feasibility. If similar results are observed on these scales in terms of cleaning performance and cost, then enzyme-based cleaning offers several advantages over the currently used CIP procedures. These include reduced environmental impact as the enzymes operate at lower temperatures, resulting in reduced energy consumption, and are biodegradable in contrast to many of the products currently used for cleaning which have adverse effects on human and ecosystem health and on the environment. Enzyme-based cleaning is also more compatible with subsequent wastewater treatment and would create safer working conditions for plant operators. The three commercial proteases assessed in the study are already produced and sold in bulk by global enzyme manufacturers and could be readily incorporated in CIP operations if found to be suitable for this application. Based on the results of the laboratory-scale studies undertaken, three commercial protease products were found to be of potential use for CIP operations in the dairy processing industry on the basis of their cleaning performance, ease of removal/inactivation after use and initial cost analysis.

It is noteworthy, however, that while these laboratory-scale studies are a useful indicator of potential suitability, pilot- and industrialscale studies are necessary to confirm actual industrial suitability as well as economic feasibility. The three commercial protease products are currently produced and sold in bulk industrial quantities by global enzyme manufacturers and therefore could be readily obtained in sufficient quantities for such studies. The performance and cost of enzyme-based cleaning were found to be comparable to those of the currently used CIP procedures when investigated on a laboratory scale. If similar results are observed on an industrial scale then enzyme-based cleaning offers several advantages over the currently used CIP procedures.

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Contact Information for This Resource

Dr. Angela Boyce
University of Limerick
Environmental Research Scientist
Industrial Biochemistry Programme, University of Limerick, Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Limerick Limerick City, Ireland
Telephone: 061 234268
e-mail: angela.boyce@ul.ie

Prof. Gary Walsh
University of Limerick
Professor Industrial Biochemistry
Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Materials and Surface Sciences Institute, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Limerick City, Ireland
Telephone: +353 61 202664
e-mail: gary.walsh@ul.ie

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Offline Print Quality Version    Strive_51_Boyce_Dairy_prn.pdf  (2.64 Mb)
Project Report Optimised For Online Viewing    Strive_51_Boyce_Dairy_web.pdf  (1.72 Mb)

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Author(s)Boyce, A. Walsh, G.
Title Of WebsiteSecure Archive For Environmental Research Data
Publication InformationMinimisation of Hazardous Waste Generated by Cleaning-in-Place Operations in the Dairy Processing Industry
Name of OrganisationEnvironmental Protection Agency Ireland
Electronic Address or URL http://erc.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=274999d7-b53f-102d-af1a-60cde515b757
Unique Identifier274999d7-b53f-102d-af1a-60cde515b757
Date of AccessLast Updated on SAFER: 2017-09-24

An example of this citation in proper usage:

Boyce, A. Walsh, G.   "Minimisation of Hazardous Waste Generated by Cleaning-in-Place Operations in the Dairy Processing Industry". Associated datasets and digitial information objects connected to this resource are available at: Secure Archive For Environmental Research Data (SAFER) managed by Environmental Protection Agency Ireland http://erc.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=274999d7-b53f-102d-af1a-60cde515b757 (Last Accessed: 2017-09-24)

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Access Information For This Resource

SAFER-Data Display URL http://erc.epa.ie/safer/iso19115/display?isoID=170
Resource Keywordsdairy processing chemicals industry milk proteases
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project Code2007-FS-ET-2-M5
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project ThemeEnvironment and Health
Resource Availability: Any User Can Download Files From This Resource
Public-Open
Limitations on the use of this ResourceThe citation generated below should be used when this work is referenced or used in any further publication, report, presentation, website, or demonstration.
Number of Attached Files (Publicly and Openly Available for Download): 2
Project Start Date Monday 3rd September 2007 (03-09-2007)
Earliest Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Monday 3rd September 2007 (03-09-2007)
Most Recent Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Monday 3rd May 2010 (03-05-2010)
Published on SAFERThursday 20th May 2010 (20-05-2010)
Date of Last EditThursday 20th May 2010 at 10:06:22 (20-05-2010)
Datasets or Files Updated On Thursday 20th May 2010 at 10:06:22 (20-05-2010)

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Lineage information about this project or dataset
The main objective of this study was to determine if enzymes display realistic potential to replace (either partially or entirely) currently used environmentally significant CIP chemicals and hence reduce the overall environmental impact of CIP in dairy processing. Due to the composition of the fouling deposit encountered in dairy processing, the aim was to look at both proteases and lipases for this purpose and cleaning performance was evaluated in a quantitative manner using a fouling deposit representative of that occurring on heated components. The first part of the study focussed on commercially available protease and lipase products which are already produced and sold in bulk quantities by global enzyme manufacturers and could be readily incorporated into CIP operations if found to be suitable. The aim of the second part of the study was to screen the University of Limerick?s in-house collection of micro-organisms for proteases of potential use in CIP. A further aim was to establish details of typical CIP procedures currently undertaken in the Irish dairy industry via communication with dairy co-ops and suppliers of cleaning chemicals as well as a review of relevant literature. Other aims included confirmation of the removal/inactivation of all enzyme activity post enzyme-based cleaning and analysis of the cost implications of enzyme-based CIP. These issues are important for acceptance of enzyme-based cleaning in industry.
Supplementary Information
Contact was established with nine Irish dairy co-ops and two companies that provide CIP chemicals to the dairy processing industry. Details of CIP procedures currently employed were obtained from five of the dairy co-ops surveyed. The four other co-ops agreed to provide information but failed to do so despite followup contact. General information on CIP in the dairy industry was provided by the two suppliers of CIP products. From the information obtained, it can be concluded that the CIP procedures undertaken within the Irish dairy processing industry are similar to those described in the literature



While future work on this topic should focus primarily on pilot-scale cleaning studies as outlined above, an additional avenue for further investigation is the ability of the three selected commercial proteases to remove biofilms from processing equipment. Biofilms, which are aggregations of bacterial cells that grow on a surface to which they are attached, are of concern to dairy manufacturers, as discussed in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.5.4.4, due to their potential effects on product safety and quality. A review of the relevant literature indicates that enzymes could potentially be more effective in removing biofilms than conventional cleaning methods.
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