Elucidating the Impact of Aerosols on Cloud Physics and the North Atlantic Regional Climate (EIRE Climate)

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Aerosols affect the Earth's climate through their interaction with clouds by acting as sites on which cloud droplets can form. These interactions alter the cloud's microphysics and lifetime. This effect is of critical importance as clouds perform a major role in maintaining the Earth's radiation balance primarily by reflecting sunlight back into space and absorbing the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth. The number and size of droplets are the key factors influencing how much radiation clouds reflect back into space. A cloud droplet activation parameterisation has been implemented in the REMOTE (REgional MOdel with Tracer Extension) regional climate model. The parameterisation provides a robust computationally efficient treatment of aerosol cloud interactions. There are large uncertainties in the indirect effect due to the complex aerosol cloud interactions involved. REMOTE, including the newly implemented cloud droplet nucleation scheme, provides a useful tool to study the indirect effect of aerosols. REMOTE (Langmann, 2000) is a three-dimensional high-resolution regional climate model (RCM). The dynamics are based on the regional weather forecast model system of the German Weather Service, while physical parameterisations are based on the ECHAM4 (European Centre Hamburg Model 4). The aerosol dynamics are based on the modal aerosol model M7 (Vignati et al., 2004). It includes RADM2 (Regional Acid Deposition Model 2) chemistry and is driven by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis data every six hours at lower and lateral boundaries. The model covers a domain of the north-east Atlantic Ocean and most of Europe. A combined organic inorganic seaspray source function has been incorporated into the model and the model now also includes a treatment of aerosol deposition. It has been shown that organic matter is highly significant in the marine environment and the combined organic inorganic sea-spray source function provides useful input for the RCM. The months of January and June 2003 were chosen as case studies for model simulations. Using these two months, the effect of increased levels of organic matter during summertime compared to wintertime can be evaluated. For both months droplet effective radius is larger over the ocean than the continent. The average droplet effective radii within an area (M1) off the west coast of Ireland are 11.39 Ám and 11.59 Ám for January and June, respectively. This area M1 was chosen as being representative of north-east Atlantic marine conditions. Within the M1 area around Ireland, the average cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) for January was 41.2 cm-3 and the average CDNC for June was 23.8 cm3. The average wind speeds for January and June were 8.8 ms-1 and 6.1 ms-1, respectively. The addition of this cloud droplet activation parameterisation makes REMOTE one of the most advanced regional climate models available worldwide, and, along with other developments taking place, will help REMOTE to provide detailed climate predictions for Europe and the north Atlantic with particular reference to Ireland. Some other developments taking place with REMOTE include treatments of ozone deposition, coastal nucleation and secondary organic aerosols. The model will be used for long-term simulations based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) AR5 (Fifth Assessment Report) emission scenarios, and will also be used to study air quality and links between air quality and climate change. The inclusion of the aerosol cloud interaction parameterisation makes the model particularly suitable for studying precipitation trends for Ireland and the rest of Europe.

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Contact Information for This Resource

Dr. Robert J. Flanagan
National University of Ireland Galway
Environmental Research Scientist
School of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Environmental Change Institute, NUI Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
Telephone: +353-91-51267
e-mail: robert.flanagan@nuigalway.ie

Dr. Colin O?Dowd
National University of Ireland Galway
Lecturer
Room AC 207 School of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Environmental Change Institute, NUI Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
Telephone: +353-91-493306
e-mail: colin.odowd@nuigalway.ie

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Offline Print Quality Version    STRIVE_52_Flanagan_Aerosols_prn.pdf  (2.98 Mb)
Project Report Optimised For Online Viewing    STRIVE_52_Flanagan_Aerosols_web.pdf  (0.83 Mb)

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Author(s)Flanagan, J.R. O?Dowd, C.
Title Of WebsiteSecure Archive For Environmental Research Data
Publication InformationElucidating the Impact of Aerosols on Cloud Physics and the North Atlantic Regional Climate (EIRE Climate)
Name of OrganisationEnvironmental Protection Agency Ireland
Electronic Address or URL http://erc.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=59a4d418-f05b-102d-af1a-60cde515b757
Unique Identifier59a4d418-f05b-102d-af1a-60cde515b757
Date of AccessLast Updated on SAFER: 2017-08-18

An example of this citation in proper usage:

Flanagan, J.R. O?Dowd, C.   "Elucidating the Impact of Aerosols on Cloud Physics and the North Atlantic Regional Climate (EIRE Climate)". Associated datasets and digitial information objects connected to this resource are available at: Secure Archive For Environmental Research Data (SAFER) managed by Environmental Protection Agency Ireland http://erc.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=59a4d418-f05b-102d-af1a-60cde515b757 (Last Accessed: 2017-08-18)

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Access Information For This Resource

SAFER-Data Display URL http://erc.epa.ie/safer/iso19115/display?isoID=181
Resource KeywordsAerosols climate clouds radiation precipitation air quality REMOTE North Atlantic Regional Climate
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project Code2008-FS-29-M1
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project ThemeClimate Change
Resource Availability: Any User Can Download Files From This Resource
Public-Open
Limitations on the use of this ResourceIt is crucial that any 3rd party use of the information provided is properly cited when used in any: publication, website, web blog, presentation, report, technical report, or article. An automated citation is provided below and should be used as a guide for the proper citation for this resource.
Number of Attached Files (Publicly and Openly Available for Download): 2
Project Start Date Wednesday 1st January 2003 (01-01-2003)
Earliest Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Wednesday 1st January 2003 (01-01-2003)
Most Recent Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Monday 30th June 2003 (30-06-2003)
Published on SAFERTuesday 3rd August 2010 (03-08-2010)
Date of Last EditTuesday 3rd August 2010 at 15:09:30 (03-08-2010)
Datasets or Files Updated On Tuesday 3rd August 2010 at 15:09:30 (03-08-2010)

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Geographical and Spatial Information Related To This Resource

Description of Geographical Characteristics of This Project or Dataset
The regional model (REMO) is based in the dynamical part on the regional weather forecast model system EM/DM (Europa-Modell/Deutschland-Modell) of the German Weather Service (Majewski, 1991). It includes the physical parameterisation package of the global model ECHAM4 (Roeckner et al., 1996). This allows a consistent model chain of the driving global climate model and the regional model to be applied for climate simulations. Additionally, the REMO can be forced by analysis data at its lateral boundaries. This allows a comparison of model results with observations to improve the model. Alternatively, the REMO can help to interpret field experiments as it fills the gaps in observational data. The REMOTE used in this work contains all the features of the REMO listed above but also includes many extra features.

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Supplementary Information About This Resource

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Lineage information about this project or dataset
REMOTE is currently one of most advanced regional climate models available worldwide and is under continuing development, and this cloud droplet activation scheme will help provide detailed climate predictions for Ireland and the rest of Europe. The main aim of this project was to implement a cloud droplet activation parameterisation in a Regional Climate Model. The main focus of this work is to study the effect of marine aerosols on climate.
Supplementary Information
In addition to the goals and objectives outlined in the report, this model will continue to be a useful tool for Irish environmental studies. The model will also be used to study aerosol growth resulting from heterogeneous chemistry and its impact on air quality, as aerosols are known to have a significant impact on air quality and human health (e.g. IPCC, 2001; Dockery and Pope, 1994). It is our intention that this model would be further utilised and developed by future researchers in order to better understand, protect and predict our sensitive climate.

The months of January and June 2003 were chosen as case studies for the model simulations. Using these two months, the effect of increased levels of organic matter during summertime compared to wintertime can be evaluated. For both months droplet effective radius is larger over the oceans than the continent. The average droplet effective radii within an area surrounding Ireland are 11.39 Ám and 11.59 Ám for January and June, respectively. Within the M1 area around Ireland, the average CDNC for January was 41.2 cm-3 and the average CDNC for June was 23.8 cm-3. Again the average wind speeds for January and June were 8.8 ms-1 and 6.1 ms-1, respectively.
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