Development of optimised pay-by-use systems which are designed to maximise the incentives for waste reduction while at the same time maintaining a properly functioning waste management system

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Resource or Project Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate each pay by use (PBU) domestic waste collection system in Ireland in terms of its impacts upon waste disposal, recycling, and, in particular, waste prevention, in order to determine the most effective system or system components. In addition, the study examined the attitudes of waste collectors and householders to PBU waste charges, and the individual systems themselves, with the overall research goal of identifying and recommending optimised domestic waste charging systems for Ireland. In examining the impacts of PBU systems upon the environment, householders, and waste collectors, the study analysed the sustainability of each system, using the three pillars of sustainability: environment, society (i.e. householders), and economy (i.e. waste collectors).

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Contact Information for This Resource

Dr. Tadhg Coakley
Clean Technology Centre
Project Manager and Principal Researcher
Clean Technology Centre, 53 Melbourne Road (former Tyco Building), Cork Institute of Technology, 53 Melbourne Road (former Tyco Building) Bishopstown, Cork City., Ireland
Telephone: 353 (21) 4344864
e-mail: tadhg.coakley@cit.ie

Dr. Abigail O'Callaghan-Platt
O'Callaghan-Platt Environmental Solutions Limited
Consultant
Ballymacowen, Clonakilty, Clonakilty, County Cork., Ireland
Telephone: +353 85 1141557
e-mail: ocallaghanplatt@eircom.net

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Attachment Name and Download Link
Offline Print Quality Version    STRIVE_84_Coakley_Waste_prn.pdf  (2.5 Mb)
Project Report Optimised For Online Viewing    STRIVE_84_Coakley_Waste_web.pdf  (1.73 Mb)

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Author(s)Coakley, T. O'Callaghan-Platt, A.
Title Of WebsiteSecure Archive For Environmental Research Data
Publication InformationDevelopment of optimised pay-by-use systems which are designed to maximise the incentives for waste reduction while at the same time maintaining a properly functioning waste management system
Name of OrganisationEnvironmental Protection Agency Ireland
Electronic Address or URL http://erc.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=8495c262-d8d7-102e-a0a4-f81fb11d7d1c
Unique Identifier8495c262-d8d7-102e-a0a4-f81fb11d7d1c
Date of AccessLast Updated on SAFER: 2017-10-22

An example of this citation in proper usage:

Coakley, T. O'Callaghan-Platt, A.   "Development of optimised pay-by-use systems which are designed to maximise the incentives for waste reduction while at the same time maintaining a properly functioning waste management system". Associated datasets and digitial information objects connected to this resource are available at: Secure Archive For Environmental Research Data (SAFER) managed by Environmental Protection Agency Ireland http://erc.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=8495c262-d8d7-102e-a0a4-f81fb11d7d1c (Last Accessed: 2017-10-22)

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Access Information For This Resource

SAFER-Data Display URL http://erc.epa.ie/safer/iso19115/display?isoID=208
Resource Keywordshousehold waste; charges; pay by use; economic instruments; ireland
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project Code2008-WRM-MS-6-S
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project ThemeWaste and Resource Management
Resource Availability: Any User Can Download Files From This Resource
Public-Open
Limitations on the use of this ResourceAny attached datasets, data files, or information objects can be downloaded for further use in scientific applications under the condition that the source is properly quoted and cited in published papers, journals, websites, presentations, books, etc. Before downloading, users must agree to the "Conditions of Download and Access" from SAFER-Data. These appear before download. Users of the data should also communicate with the original authors/owners of this resource if they are uncertain about any aspect of the data or information provided before further usage.
Number of Attached Files (Publicly and Openly Available for Download): 2
Project Start Date Friday 1st August 2008 (01-08-2008)
Earliest Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Friday 1st August 2008 (01-08-2008)
Most Recent Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Friday 1st October 2010 (01-10-2010)
Published on SAFERThursday 26th May 2011 (26-05-2011)
Date of Last EditWednesday 14th December 2011 at 10:33:39 (14-12-2011)
Datasets or Files Updated On Wednesday 14th December 2011 at 10:33:39 (14-12-2011)

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Geographical and Spatial Information Related To This Resource

Description of Geographical Characteristics of This Project or Dataset
This study is an all island approach and is not specific to any region in Ireland.

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Supplementary Information About This Resource

In this section some supplementary information about this resource is outlined. Lineage information helps us to understand why this project was carried out, what policy or research requirements did it fulfil, etc. Lineage is important in understanding the rationale behind the carrying out of a project or the collection of a specific dataset etc. Links to web sites, applications, papers, etc are outlined to provide you with additional information or supplementary reading about the project or dataset

Lineage information about this project or dataset
Charging for domestic solid waste collection was abolished in 1977. Subsequent to that, Ireland?s local authorities found themselves increasingly short of funds for waste management (Lawlor and Scott, 1997). In 1983 national legislation was passed allowing the authorities to once again levy charges on households for waste collection and disposal services supplied. Despite this, charging was not widespread for many years and the local authorities that chose to levy charges used a flat rate waste collection fee, with householders paying the same charge regardless of the amount of waste put out for collection. Under a flat fee for waste collection households face a zero marginal cost to producing more waste and have no incentive to reduce the production of waste or increase the recycling of waste.

In 1997 the policy documents Sustainable Development - A Strategy for Ireland (DoEHLG, 1997a) and Recycling for Ireland (DoEHLG, 1997b) and in 1998 An Action Plan for the Millennium (D/Taoiseach, 1998) were published. These focused on the need for changes to be made in the waste management sector. In 1998 Waste Management - Changing our Ways (DoEHLG, 1998) was published and highlighted the necessity for a considerable reduction in the amount of waste going to landfill while more recent policy statements on waste (DoEHLG, 2002; DoEHLG, 2004a; DoEHLG, 2004b) focused on introducing economic instruments in line with the polluter pays principle to reduce the rising volume of household waste going to landfill. The 2004 policy document Waste Management ? Taking Stock and Moving Forward outlined the national plan to introduce domestic PBU charges by January 1st 2005 (DoEHLG, 2004b).

Irish environmental law has legislated for the use of economic instruments since 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1992, laid down the polluter pays principle as one of its key values (Government of Ireland, 1992) but until recently this principle was not adhered to in the management of household waste. In national law the Waste Management (Amendment) Act, 2001 is a key piece of legislation incorporating economic instruments in an attempt to manage the spiralling waste problem. The Waste Management Acts 1996 and 2001 gave responsibility to local authorities to formulate their regional waste management plans, outlined plans to develop laws to limit the recovery or disposal of certain waste streams to certain types of waste facilities and legislated for the landfill levy and plastic bag tax These levies are ring fenced and go to the Environmental Fund (Government of Ireland, 1996; Government of Ireland, 2001).

The 2003 Protection of the Environment Act gave enhanced powers to local authorities with regard to the enforcement of waste legislation. The legislation established executive powers for local authorities over waste charges and they were granted the right to stop collecting domestic waste if charges are not paid (Government of Ireland, 2003). The waste management legislation bought in by the Act was highly controversial. The right of the local authorities to suspend waste collection from debtors was a large shift from the previous laws outlined in the Waste Management Act 2001 (Laurence, 2004).
Supplementary Information
Final Reports, presentations, papers including paper presented at Sustainable City 2010, 14 - 16 April 2010 La Coruna, Spain; paper presented at Annual Conference of Environmental Impact Assessment, Geneva, April 2010; paper presented at CIWM Ireland seminar workshop at the Irish Recycling & Waste Exhibition on October 13th 2010 etc

The authors would like to thank the project Steering Committee who gave generously of their time and expertise during the study: Dr. Brian Donlon (EPA); Ms. Sandra Kavanagh (EPA); Mr. Jim Moriarty (EPA); Mr. Barry Lavin (DEHLG); Mr. Enda Kiernan (Cork Co. Co.). The authors would also like to thank all those who assisted us in the research, especially the local authority and private collectors and the many householders who answered our questions. Thanks also to all other stakeholders who assisted us and provided us with their time and knowledge.
Links To Other Related Resources
  http://www.paybyuse.ie/index.php?id=10 (Opens in a new window)
  http://www.cleantechnologycentre.eu/ (Opens in a new window)

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